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Wednesday, June 29, 2022

Scapula

This is the latest installment of a series of patterns that will go together to create a life-sized anatomical skeleton. You can find links to the all the patterns I've released so far on my round up post.


Difficulty:


Medium - difficult


You will need:
  • A 2.5mm crochet hook
  • anchor creative fino 4ply in white
  • A pack of white pipecleaners
  • some craft wire - I used was 0.5mm diameter wire (optional)
  • A darning needle
  • A pair of scissors

Note:

  • This pattern includes the back-to-front single crochet stitch (bfsc). A video to show you how to do this can be found here. It's pretty simple but if you can't work it out you can just use a regular single crochet stitch, but this will give it a slightly different look.

Right scapula

For the right glenoid cavity:
Ch5
Round 1: sc in the 2nd chain st from hook and the next 2 chain sts. Make 3sc in the first chain st you made, then sc in the back of each of the 2 previous chain sts you crocheted into in turn. Make 2sc in the back of the first chain st you crocheted into (10sc)
Round 2: make 2sc in the first st, sc2, make 2sc in each of the next 4sts, sc3, hdc in the same st (15sts)
Round 3: Hdc, slip1, sc2, (sc, make 2sc in the following st) 3 times, sc2, slip1, sc, make 2hdc in the next st, hdc (19sts)
Round 4: Hdc, sc19
Fasten off neatly


For the main section (right scapula):
Ch10
Round 1: sc in the 2nd chain st from hook and the next 7sts. make 3sc in the first chain st you made, then sc in the back loop of each of the previous chain sts you crocheted into in turn. Make 2sc in the back of the first chain st you crocheted into (20sc)
Round 2: hdc5, sc3, make 2sc in each of the next 3sts, sc3, hdc6 (23sts)
Round 3: hdc3, sc3, slip11, sc3, hdc3
Round 4: sc, make 2hdc in the next st, hdc8, make 2sc in the next st, sc12 (25sts)
Round 5: sc, hdc2tog, hdc8, sc2tog, sc12 (23sts)
---
Round 6: Sc13, slip10
Round 7: make 2sc in each of the first 2sts, sc10, make 2sc in the next st, sc11 (26sc)
Round 8: Sc, make 2sc in each of the next 2sts, sc12, make 2sc in the next st, sc, slip9 (29sc)
Round 9: Sc2, make 2sc in each of the next 2sts, sc13, 2sc, sc11 (32sc)
Round 10: Sc4, make 2sc in each of the next 2sts, sc14, 2sc, sc11 (35sc)
Round 11: Sc5, make 2sc in each of the next 2sts, sc16, 2sc, sc11 (38sc)
Round 12: Sc6, make 2sc in each of the next 2sts, sc to end (40sc)
Round 13: Sc8, make 2sc in the next st, sc19, make 2sc in the next st, sc11 (42sc)
Round 14: Sc8, make 2sc in each of the next 2sts, sc32 (44sc)
Round 15: Sc10, make 2sc in the next st, sc34 (45sc)
Round 16: Sc in each st
Round 17: Sc11, make 2sc in the next st, sc33 (46sc)
Round 18: Sc11, make 2sc in the next st, sc22, sc2tog, sc10 (46sc)
Round 19: Sc12, make 2sc in the next st, sc22, sc2tog, sc9 (46sc)
Round 20: Sc7, hdc6, make 2hdc in the next st, hdc6, sc7, slip19 (47sts)
Round 21: Sc14, make 2sc in the next st, sc32 (48sts)
Round 22: Slip1, sc6, hdc7, make 2hdc in the next st, hdc7, sc6, slip20 (49sts)
Round 23: Sc9, hdc6, make 2hdc in the next  st, hdc6, sc16, slip5, sc6 (50sts)
Round 24: Sc13, hdc3, make 2hdc in the each of the next 2sts, hdc3, sc19, sc2tog, sc8 (51sts)
Round 25: Sc12, hdc6, make 2hdc in the each of the next 2sts, hdc6, sc13, slip8, sc4 (53sts)
Round 26: Sc14, hdc5, make 2hdc in the each of the next 2sts, hdc4, ch20, skip20, sc8 (55sts)
Round 27: Sc16, hdc4, make 2hdc in the each of the next 2sts, hdc4, sc28 (57sts)
Row 28: Sc17, hdc4, make 2hdc in the next st. ch1, turn
Row 29: Hdc5, bfsc46, hdc3, make 2hdc in the next st. Ch1, turn (58sts)
Row 30: Hdc4, sc49, hdc3. ch1, turn (56sts)
Row 31: Bfsc in each of these st. ch1, turn
Row 32: Sc2tog, sc24, sc2tog, sc26, sc2tog. ch1, turn (53sts)
Row 33: Bfsc2tog, bfsc49, bfsc2tog. ch1, turn (49sts)
Row 34: Sc24, sc2tog, sc17. ch1 (48sts)
Round 35: Sc in the 9th st of the previous row (image 1), sc14, sc2tog, sc17, sc2tog (34sts)
Image 1

Note that most of the next rounds are slightly more than a single round. The numbers are the end are the stitch count you should have after completing the round.
Round 36: Sc2tog, sc13, sc2tog, sc13, sc3tog (30sts)
Round 37: Sc4tog, sc10, sc2tog, sc11, sc4tog (23sts)
Round 38: Sc9, sc2tog, sc9, sc3tog (20sts)
Round 39: Sc8, sc2tog, sc8, sc2tog (18sts)
Round 40: Sc15, sc3tog (16sts)
Round 41: Sc5, sc3tog, sc5, sc3tog (12sc)
Round 42: Sc4, sc3tog, sc2 (10sc)
Fasten off

For the scapula spine:
Rejoin yarn to the same st of round 21 in the same st as you crocheted into before making the ch20 on round 22 (as shown in the images below)
Image 2
Image 3

Round 1: Sc in this st and in the next 21sts of round 21 (image 4) , then sc in the back of the 20 chain sts (image 5), returning to the same st as you rejoined your yarn (image 6). (42sts)


Image 4
Image 5

Image 6
Round 2: make 2hdc in the firts st, hdc3, sc14, sc6tog, sc8, hdc3, make 2hdc in each of the last 2sts (39sts)
Round 3: hdc, make 2hdc in the next st, hdc4, sc11, sc6tog, sc11, hdc4, make 2hdc in the following st, hdc, make 2hdc in the last st (36sts)
Row 4: hdc6, sc3, slip7, sc6tog, slip16, make 2hdc in the last st. ch1, turn
Row 5: make 2hdc in the first st, bfsc, slip10 (back-to-front slip them if you want it to look nice), bfsc3, bfsc6tog, bfsc11, hdc, make 2hdc in the last st. ch1, turn (32sts)
Row 6: make 2hdc in the first st, sc, slip9, sc6tog, sc13, make 2hdc in the last st. ch1, turn (28sts)
Row 7: make 2hdc in the first st, bfsc, slip10 (back to front slip if you want it to be neater), bfsc6tog, bfsc8, make 2hdc in the last st. ch1, turn (24sts)
Row 8: slip8, sc7tog
Fasten off

For the acromion:
Make a magic loop with 2sc. ch1, turn
Row 1: make 2sc in the first st, sc. ch1, turn (3sc)
Row 2: sc, make 2sc in the next st, sc. ch1, turn (4sc)
Row 3: sc in each st. ch1, turn
Row 4: sc2, make 2sc in the next st, sc. ch1, turn (5sc)
Row 5: make 2sc in the firs st, sc4. ch1, turn (6sc)
Row 6: sc5, make 2sc in the last st. ch1, turn (7sc)
Row 7: make 2sc in the first st, sc6. ch1, turn (8sc)
Row 8: sc5, hdc3. ch1, turn
Row 9: hdc4, sc4. ch1, turn
Row 10: slip3, sc5. ch1, turn
Row 11: sc4, slip4. ch1, turn
Row 12: slip4, sc4. ch1, turn
Row 13: sc5, slip3. ch1, turn
Row 14: sc4, hdc4. ch1, turn
Row 15: hdc3, sc5. ch1, turn
Row 16: sc2tog, sc3, sc3tog. ch1, turn (5sc)
Row 17: sc2tog, sc, sc2tog. ch1, turn (3sc)
Row 18: sc2tog, sc. ch1, turn(2sc)
Row 19: sc2tog (1sc)
Fasten off

Position the (right) scapula so that the cast-on edge is on the left and the tips of the scapula spine are pointing towards you. Separate out these points.
Image 7
Position the acromion so that the cast-off point is in the groove between the 2 tips (see images 8-9). Looking at this section as a D shape, the curved edge should be pointing to the right (image 10).
Image 8
Image 9


Image 10

Sew up the sides of the this v-shape (image 9). Turn the bone around so that the cast-on end of the main section is on the right (image 11). Sew the cast-on tip of the acromion to the cast-off tail of the main section (from where you finished making the spine section), then sew the edges of the acromion to the edges of the spine section (images 12 - 13). You should end up with a loop of the acromion not sewn to anything, as shown in image 14. Press the sides of this loop together and sew them closed (image 15).
Image 11
Image 12

Image 13

Image 14

Image 15


You now need to add wire/ pipecleaners to the edge of the bone to strengthen it. I used 3 pipe cleaners twisted around each other to get the required strength, but how many you need will depend on the quality of your pipe-cleaner. You will need to wrap the pipecleaners around each other (img 16) at the ends so that they're long enough to fit around the outside of the bone (img 17). Insert the pipe cleaners in through the hole in the top of the bone and add a few stitches around the edge to keep them in place (img 20). Make sure to leave an end free at the opening as you'll need this later.
Image 16

Image 17

Image 18

Image 19 - yellow line shows the position of the pipecleaner inside the bone

Image 20

You also need to add pipecleaners into the spine section of the bone to strengthen it. To do this you should create a 3D structure consisting of 3 triangles with spokes pointing out (see img 21) - creating this around the outside of the bone will help you to get all the bits the right size. You should then insert it into the bone and sew it into place with a few small stitches.
Image 21


Image 22

Image 23
Image 24

Image 25

Image 26

For the coracoid process:
Rejoin yarn to the first st of round 34 on the main section. 
Round 35: sc in this st and the next 7sts. sc in the next st of round 34 that you haven't crocheted into (i.e. the first st on the back (see image 28)). Make sure that the pipecleaner end sits to the left of the stitch you just made. sc in the next 7sts. ch1, turn
Round 36: bfsc6, bfsc3tog, bfsc7. ch1, turn
Round 37: sc14
Round 38: Sc in the first st you made on the previous round, then sc in every following st. This should create 2 holes in the bone, one at the top and one at the side. Make sure the pipecleaver is pointing through the side hole (see image 29) (14sc)
Round 39: sc, ch3, sc in the 2nd st from hook and the next chain st, sc in the same st as you crocheted into before you made the ch3, sc in the next 5 sts, sc3tog, sc5
Round 40: sc, sc in the back loop of the next chain st, make 2sc in the back loop of the follwoing chain sts, sc in the next 7sts, sc5tog, sc2
Round 41: sc9, sc3tog, sc
Round 42: sc7
Fasten off neatly


Image 27

Image 28

Image 29

Image 30

Image 31 - The finished coracoid process

You then need to fold up the end of the pipecleaner into the coracoid process and use a few stitches to secture it around the edge. Following this sew up the hole in the top of the coracoid where the cast-off stitches are.

Image 32 - the opening of the coracoid process that needs to be sewn up

Separeate the final opening, then wind the remaining end of the pipecleaner around as shown in image 33. Finally sew the glenoid cavity over this, with the cast-off end at the top (see images 34-35).
Image 33
Image 34

Image 35
Image 36


Left scapula
For the left glenoidcavity:
Ch5
Round 1: sc in the 2nd chain st from hook and the next 2 chain sts. Make 3sc in the first chain st you made, then sc in the back of each of the 2 previous chain sts you crocheted into in turn. Make 2sc in the back of the first chain st you crocheted into (10sc)
Round 2: make 2sc in the first st, sc2, make 2sc in each of the next 4sts, sc3, hdc in the same st (15sts)
Round 3: Hdc, slip1, sc2, (sc, make 2sc in the following st) 3 times, sc2, slip1, hdc2, make 2hdc in the last st (19sts)
Round 4: sc20
Fasten off neatly

For the left main section:
With a 2.5mm hook ch10
Round 1: sc in the 2nd chain st from hook and the next 7sts. make 3sc in the first chain st you made, then sc in the back loop of each of the previous chain sts you crocheted into in turn. Make 2sc in the back of the first chain st you crocheted into (20sc)
Round 2: hdc5, sc3, make 2sc in each of the next 3sts, sc3, hdc6 (23sts)
Round 3: hdc3, sc3, slip11, sc3, hdc3
Round 4: sc, make 2hdc in the next st, hdc8, make 2sc in the next st, sc12 (25sts)
Round 5: sc, hdc2tog, hdc8, sc2tog, sc12 (23sts)
Round 6: Sc2, slip10, sc11
Round 7: make 2sc in each of the first 2sts, sc11, make 2sc in the next st, sc10 (26sts)
Round 8: Sc, make 2sc in each of the next 2sts, sc, slip9, sc, make 2sc in the next st, sc11 (29sts)
Round 9: Sc2, make 2sc in each of the next 2sts, sc13, make 2sc in the next st, sc11 (32sts)
Round 10: Sc3, make 2sc in each of the next 2sts, sc15, make 2sc in the next st, sc11 (35sts)
Round 11: Sc4, make 2sc in each of the next 2sts, sc17, make 2sc in the next st, sc11 (38sts)
Round 12: Sc5, make 2sc in each of the next 2sts, sc31 (40sc)
Round 13: Sc7, make 2sc in the next st, sc19, make 2sc in the next st, sc12 (42sts)
Round 14: Sc7, make 2sc in each of the next 2sts, sc33 (44sc)
Round 15: Sc9, make 2sc in the next st, sc34 (45sc)
Round 16: Sc in each st
Round 17: Sc10, make 2sc in the next st, sc34 (46sts)
Round 18: Sc11, make 2sc in the next st, sc23, sc2tog, sc9 (46sts)
Round 19: Sc11, make 2sc in the next st, sc23, sc2tog, sc9 (46sts)
Round 20: Sc6, hdc7, make 2hdc in each of the next 2sts, hdc7, sc7, slip17 (48sts)
Round 21: Sc14, make 2sc in the next st, sc33 (49sts)
Round 22: Slip1, sc6, hdc8, 2hdc, hdc8, sc7, slip18 (50sts)
Round 23: Sc8, hdc7, 2hdc, hdc7, sc16, slip5, sc6 (51sts)
Round 24: Sc13, hdc3, 2hdc twice, hdc3, sc20, sc2tog, sc8 (52sts)
Round 25: Sc11, hdc6, 2hdc twice, hdc6, sc14, slip8, sc5 (54sts)
Round 26: slip 15, hdc4, 2hdc twice, hdc5, sc23, ch20 (56sts)
---
(Note that the next round changes where the subsequent rounds begin and end)
Round 27: skip20, sc2, hdc4, 2hdc twice, hdc4, sc44 (58sts)
Row 28: sc, hdc4, make 2hdc in the next st. ch1, turn (59sts)
Row 29: Hdc5, bfsc48, hdc3, make 2hdc in the next st. Ch1, turn (58sts)
Row 30: Hdc4, sc51, hdc3. ch1, turn (58sts)
Row 31: Bfsc in each of these st. ch1, turn
Row 32: Sc2tog, sc26, sc2tog, sc26, sc2tog. ch1, turn (55sts)
Row 33: Bfsc2tog, bfsc51, bfsc2tog. ch1, turn (53sts)
Row 34: Sc25, sc2tog, sc17. ch1
Round 33: Sc in the 9th st of the previous row, sc15, sc2tog, sc15, sc2tog (33sts)
Round 36: Sc2tog, sc13, sc2tog, sc13, sc3tog (29sts)
Note that most of the next rounds are slightly more than 1 round. The numbers are the end are the stitch count you should have after completing the round.
Round 37: Sc4tog, sc10, sc2tog, sc11, sc4tog (22sts)
Round 38: Sc9, sc2tog, sc9, sc3tog (19sts)
Round 39: Sc8, sc2tog, sc8, sc2tog (17sts)
Round 40: Sc15, sc3tog (15sts)
Round 41: Sc5, sc3tog, sc5, sc3tog (11sc)
Round 42: Sc5, sc3tog, sc3 (9sc)
Fasten off

For the scapula spine:
Rejoin yarn to the last of the ch20 sts you made at the end of round 26 (Image 37) 
Round 1: sc in the back loop of the next 19 of these chain sts, then sc in the same st of round 21 as you crocheted into on round 22. Sc in the next  21sts of round 21. (42sts)

Image 37

Round 2: make 2hdc in the first st, hdc3, sc14, sc6tog, sc13, hdc3, make 2hdc in each of the last 2sts (40sts)
Round 3: hdc, make 2hdc in the next st, hdc4, sc11, sc6tog, sc11, hdc4, make 2hdc in each of the last 2sts (38sts)
Round 4: hdc6, sc3, slip7, sc6tog, slip15, make 2hdc in teh last st. ch1, turn (34sts)
Round 5: make 2hdc in the first st, bfsc, slip10 (back-to-front slip them if you want it to look nice), bfsc2, bfsc6tog, bfsc11, hdc, make 2hdc in the last st, ch1, turn (30sts)%%%
Round 6: make 2hdc in the irst st, sc, slip9, sc6tog, sc12, make 2hdc in the last st.ch1, turn (27sts)
Round 7: make 2hdc in the first st, bfsc, slip10 (back to front slip if you want it to be neater), bfsc6tog, bfsc8, make 2hdc in the last st. ch1, turn (24sts)
Round 8: slip8, sc7tog
Fasten off

For the acriomion:
Make a magic loop with 2sc. ch1, turn
Row 1: make 2sc in the first st, sc. ch1, turn (3sc)
Row 2: sc, make 2sc in the next st, sc. ch1, turn (4sc)
Row 3: sc in each st. ch1, turn
Row 4: sc2, make 2sc in the next st, sc. ch1, turn (5sc)
Row 5: make 2sc in the firs st, sc4. ch1, turn (6sc)
Row 6: sc5, make 2sc in the last st. ch1, turn (7sc)
Row 7: make 2sc in the first st, sc6. ch1, turn (8sc)
Row 8: sc5, hdc3. ch1, turn
Row 9: hdc4, sc4. ch1, turn
Row 10: slip3, sc5. ch1, turn
Row 11: sc4, slip4. ch1, turn
Row 12: slip4, sc4. ch1, turn
Row 13: sc5, slip3. ch1, turn
Row 14: sc4, hdc4. ch1, turn
Row 15: hdc3, sc5. ch1, turn
Row 16: sc2tog, sc3, sc3tog. ch1, turn (5sc)
Row 17: sc2tog, sc, sc2tog. ch1, turn (3sc)
Row 18: sc2tog, sc. ch1, turn (2sc)
Row 19: sc2tog (1sc)
Fasten off

Attach this in the same way as you did for the right scapula (but mirror imaged so the D points the other way, as shown in the images below)





Stiffen with pipecleaners in the same way as you did for the right bone

For the coracoid process:
Rejoin yarn to the first st of round 34 on the main section. 
Round 35: sc in this st and the next 7sts. sc in the next st of round 34 that you haven't crocheted into (i.e. the first st on the back (see image 28)). Make sure that the pipecleaner end sits to the left of the stitch you just made. sc in the next 7sts. ch1, turn
Round 36: bfsc6, bfsc3tog, bfsc7. ch1, turn
Round 37: sc14
Round 38: Sc in the first st you made on the previous round, then sc in every following st. This should create 2 holes in the bone, one at the top and one at the side. Make sure the pipecleaver is pointing through the side hole (see image 29) (14sc)
Round 39: sc, ch3, sc in the 2nd st from hook and the next chain st, sc in the same st as you crocheted into before you made the ch3, sc in the next 5 sts, sc3tog, sc5
Round 40: sc, sc in the back loop of the next chain st, make 2sc in the back loop of the follwoing chain sts, sc in the next 7sts, sc5tog, sc2
Round 41: sc9, sc3tog, sc
Round 42: sc7
Fasten off neatly

Stiffen this and add the glenoid cavity in the same way as you did for the right bone


That's all from this pattern - I hope you've enjoyed it! If you have you might like to check out some of the other patterns in this series - I recommend the arm pattern as a natural next step as they connect up nicely with the scapula. If you have any questions feel free to email me at lhodginscrochet@gmail.com and I'll do my best to answer! You can also follow me @anatomical_crochet on Instagram to keep up to date with what I'm working on and when I publish new patterns.
As always you're very welcome to sell finished products but I do ask that you don't re-post this pattern or claim it as you're own. Thank you!


Sources:
T.D. White, Human Osteology p.245-264, Academic Press, 1991



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Sternum

This pattern is part of a series of patterns I'm releasing that fit together to form a life-sized skeleton. This is probably the simples...