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Thursday, June 17, 2021

Liver

 This liver is part of a series of life-sized crocheted organs I have been working on. It fits together with a number of other patterns to create a full human digestive system.



Difficulty:
Easy


You will need:
  • A 2.5mm crochet hook
  • A 2mm crochet hook
  • Anchor creativa fino cotton yarn in dark garnet red
  • Black 4ply yarn
  • White sewing thread
  • A regular sewing needle
  • A darning needle
  • Polyester toy stuffing
  • A pair of scissors


The liver is an extremely important organ, producing a fluid known as bile that helps to break down fats, as well as playing a crucial role in the removal of toxins. If you'd like to know more about the liver, I recommend watching this Ted-Ed video.

For the liver:
With the 2.5mm hook and garnet red yarn make a magic loop with 4sc
Round 1: make 2sc in each st (8sc)
Round 2: (sc, make 2sc in the next st) 4 times (12sc)
Round 3: (sc2, make 2sc in the next st) 4 times (16sc)
Round 4: (sc3, make 2sc in the next st) 4 times (20sc)
Round 5: (sc4, make 2sc in the next st) 4 times (24sc)
Round 6: (sc5, make 2sc in the next st) 4 times (28sc)
Round 7: Sc6, make 2sc in the next st, sc6, make 2sc in the following st, sc8, make 2hdc in each of the next 2sts, sc4 (32sts)
Round 8: Sc7, make 2sc in the next st, sc8, make 2sc in the following st, sc9, make 3hdc in the next st, make 2hdc in the following st, sc4 (37sts)
Round 9: Sc27, make 2sc in the next st, make 2hdc in each of the next 2sts, make 2sc in the following st, sc6 (41sts)
Round 10: Sc29, make 2sc in the next st, make 2hdc in each of the next 2sts, make 2sc in the following st, sc8 (45sts)
Round 11: Sc30, make 2sc in the next st, make 2hdc in each of the next 2sts, make 2sc in the following st, sc11 (49sts)
Round 12: Sc33, make 2sc in the next st, make 2hdc in each of the next 2sts, make 2sc in the following st, sc12 (53sts)
Round 13: Slip20, sc14, make 2sc in the next st, make 2hdc in each of the next 2sts, make 2sc in the following st, sc15 (57sts)
Round 14: Sc37, make 2sc in the next st, make 2hdc in each of the next 2sts, make 2sc in the following st, sc16 (61sts)
Round 15: Slip22, sc17, make 2sc in the next st, make 2hdc in each of the next 2sts, make 2sc in the following st, sc18 (65sts)
Round 16: Sc42, make 2sc in the next st, make 2hdc in each of the next 2sts, make 2sc in the following st, sc19 (69sts)
Round 17: Slip24, sc20, make 2sc in the next st, make 2hdc in each of the next 2sts, make 2sc in the following st, sc21 (73sts)
Round 18: Sc46, make 2sc in the next st, make 2hdc in each of the next 2sts, make 2sc in the following st, sc23 (77sts)
Round 19: Slip30, sc18, make 2sc in the next st, make 2hdc in each of the next 2sts, make 2sc in the following st, sc18, slip7 (81sts)
Round 20: Sc50, make 2sc in the next st, make 2hdc in each of the next 2sts, make 2sc in the following st, sc27 (85sts)
Round 21: Slip31, sc22, make 2sc in the next st, make 2hdc in each of the next 2sts, make 2sc in the following st, sc22, slip6 (89sts)
Round 22: Sc55, make 2sc in the next st, make 2hdc in each of the next 2sts, make 2sc in the following st, sc34 (93sts)
Round 23: Slip33, sc24, make 2sc in the next st, make 2hdc in each of the next 2sts, make 2sc in the following st, sc24, slip8 (97sts)
Round 24: Sc59, make 2sc in the next st, make 2hdc in each of the next 2sts, make 2sc in the following st, sc36 (101sts)
Round 25: Slip36, sc25, make 2sc in the next st, make 2hdc in each of the next 2sts, make 2sc in the following st, sc25, slip11 (105sts)
Round 26: Sc63, make 2sc in the next st, make 2hdc in each of the next 2sts, make 2sc in the following st, sc38 (109sts)
Round 27: Slip38, sc29, make 2sc in each of the next 2sts, sc29, slip11 (111sts)
Round 28: Sc68, make 2sc in each of the next 2sts, sc41 (113sts)
Round 29: Slip40, sc29, make 2sc in the next st, sc29, slip13 (114sts)
Rounds 30 - 34: (5 rounds) sc in each st
Round 35: Sc7, sc2tog 4 times, sc4, sc2tog 4 times, sc41, sc2tog, sc5tog, sc2tog, sc38 (100sts)
Round 36: Sc7, sc2tog, sc3tog, sc2, sc3tog, sc2tog, sc39, sc2tog, sc4tog, sc2tog, sc35 (89sts)
Round 37: Sc5, sc2tog, sc3tog, sc, sc3tog, sc2tog, sc2, slip27, sc5, sc2tog, sc4tog, sc2tog, sc5, slip27 (79sts)
Round 38: sc4, sc2tog, sc4tog, sc2tog, sc30, sc2tog, sc4tog, sc2tog, sc29 (69sc)
Round 39:  sc2, sc2tog, sc4tog, sc2tog, slip24, sc2tog, sc, sc4tog, sc, sc2tog, slip25 (59sc)
Round 40:  sc2tog, sc4tog, sc2tog, sc19, sc2tog, sc, sc4tog, sc, sc2tog, sc20, sc2tog (48sc)
Round 41: 
 (Note that this is slightly less than 1 round) sc4tog, sc2tog, slip15, sc2tog, sc4tog, sc2tog, slip16, sc2tog (38sts)
Round 42: sc4tog, sc2tog, sc10, sc2tog, sc4tog, sc2tog, sc14 (29sts)
Round 43: sc2tog
Fasten off
Stuff firmly

Sew closed the gap in the top of the liver.


Fun fact 1:
Your liver is the only organ in your body that is able to completely re-grow itself, requiring only 25% of the original tissue to be able to do so. This is an evolutionary advantage as the liver carries out so many vital functions.


For the eyes:
With black yarn make a magic loop with 6sc
Fasten off

Add highlights to the eyes using white thread, then sew them to the face. Add a mouth using black yarn.


That's all from this pattern - I hope you have enjoyed it! If you did I have lots of other similar patterns ready to publish in the near future - you can see what I have designed so far and am currently working on by following my Instagram. That's also a good place to contact me if you have any questions about this or any of my other patterns. Alternatively you can get in contact with my via my Ravelry page, or by leaving a comment below.


References:
Mentalfloss.com

Monday, June 14, 2021

Gallbladder

This gallbladder pattern is part of a series of patterns I'm gradually publishing that fit together to form a complete human digestive system. It is approximately life-size.


Difficulty:

Easy - medium


You will need:
  • A 2mm crochet hook
  • Anchor creativa fino cotton
  • black 4ply yarn
  • White sewing cotton
  • Polyester toy stuffing
  • A regular sewing needle
  • A darning needle
  • A pair of scissors

The gallbladder is important for storing and concentrating bile, an important substance that helps our bodies break down fat. If you want to find out more about this organ I recommend watching this Kunhub video.

For the gall bladder:
Make a magic loop with 6sc
Round 1: make 2sc in each st (12sc)
Round 2: (sc, make 2sc in the next st) 6 times (18sc)
Round 3: (sc2, make 2sc in the next st) 6 times (24sc)
Round 4: (sc3, make 2sc in the next st) 6 times (30sc)
Rounds 5 - 9: (5 rounds) sc in each st
Round 10: (sc8, sc2tog) 3 times (27sc)
Round 11: Sc4, sc2tog, sc7, sc2tog, sc7, sc2tog, sc3 (24sc)
Round 12: Sc in each st
Round 13: (sc6, sc2tog) 3 times (21sc)
Rounds 14 - 17: (4 rounds) sc in each st
Round 18: (sc5, sc2tog) 3 times (18sc)
Round 19: Sc in each st
Round 20: Sc, sc2tog, sc4, sc2tog sc4, sc2tog, sc3 (15sc)
Round 21: Sc in each st
Round 22: (sc3, sc2tog) 3 times (12sc)
Round 23: Sc in each st
Round 24: Sc, sc2tog, sc2, sc2tog, sc2, sc2tog, sc (9sc)
Round 25: (sc, sc2tog) 3 times (6sc)
Round 26: (sc, sc2tog) twice (4sc)
Rounds 27 - 34: (8 rounds) sc in each st
Fasten off neatly


Fun fact:
Humans can live perfectly healthy lives without a gallbladder. Its function is thought to have originated from when humans lived as hunter-gatherers and had to cope with fewer, larger meals. The bile released from the gallbladder helped to break down large amounts of fat in a short period of time.


For the hepatic duct:
Part 1:
Ch4
Round 1: sc in the first chain st you made, then sc in the next 3 chain sts to make a loop (4sc)
Round 2: Sc in each st
Fasten off neatly


Part 2:
Ch4
Round 1: sc in the first chain st you made, then sc in the next 3 chain sts to make a loop (4sc)
Round 2: Sc in each st
Round 3: Sc in 3sts of part 1 of the hepatic duct, then skip1 on part 2 and sc in the next 3sts (6sc)
Round 4: Sc, sc2tog, sc, sc2tog (4sc)
Rounds 5 - 17: (13 rounds) sc in each st
Round 18: Sc in 3sts of the main section of the gallbladder, then skip1 on part 2 of the hepatic duct and sc in the next 3sts (6sc)
Round 19: Sc, sc2tog, sc, sc2tog (4sc)
Rounds 20 - 35: (16 rounds) Sc in each st
Fasten off neatly

Fun fact:
In 2012 A report from the Canadian Journal of Surgery recommended that astronauts have their gallbladder removed, even if this organ was seemingly healthy. This is to eliminate the risk of gall stones and cholecystitis (inflammation of the gall bladder) when they are far from Earth.


For the eyes:
With black 4ply yarn and a 2mm hook make a magic loop with 6sc
Fasten off

Use white thread to embroider highlights onto each eye then sew them to the face. Use black yarn to embroider eyebrows and a mouth. You can also add other facial features if you wish.



That's all from this pattern, I hope you have enjoyed it! You are very welcome to sell finished products but I do ask that you don't re-post this pattern, or claim it or any of the images as your own. If you have any questions about this or any of my other patterns, please don't hesitate to contact me. You can leave a comment below, or message me on my Ravelry page, through the best way to contact me is through my Instagram page, where you can keep updated with all the projects I'm currently working on.

References:

Monday, June 7, 2021

Amino acids - basic structure

This pattern demonstrates the basic structure of amino acids, with an R group in place of the variable group. I will soon be publishing a pattern for each of the individual amino acids, which you should check out if you want to know more information about these very important molecules.




Difficulty:
Easy


You will need:
  • Dk yarn in white, black, purple, red, brown, and  light blue
  • Black embroidery thread
  • A 2.5mm crochet hook
  • Toy stuffing
  • A darning needle
  • A pair of scissors

Amino acids are a group of molecules found in your body that is used to create proteins. They all have the same basic structure, but differ in their 'R' group, a side chain of atoms that gives each amino acid its specific properties. You can find out more about amino acids by watching this video.


For the carbon atoms (make 2):
With black make a magic loop with 6sc
Round 1: make 2sc in each st (12sc)
Round 2: (sc in the first st, make 2sc in the next st) 6 times to end (18sc)
Rounds 3 - 6: (4 rounds) sc in each st
Round 7: (sc in the first st, sc2tog) 6 times (12sc)
Stuff firmly
Round 8: sc2tog 6 times (6sc)
Fasten off

For the hydrogen atoms (make 4):
With light blue make a magic loop with 6sc
Round 1: make 2sc in each st (12sc)
Rounds 2 - 3: (2 rounds) sc in each st
Round 4: sc2tog 6 times (6sc)
Fasten off
Stuff firmly

For the nitrogen atom:
With purple make a magic loop with 6sc
Round 1: make 2sc in each st (12sc)
Round 2: (sc in the first st, make 2sc in the next st) 6 times to end (18sc)
Round 3: (sc in the first 5 sts, make 2sc in the next st) 3 times (21sc)
Rounds 4 - 7: (4 rounds) sc in each st
Round 8: (sc2, sc2tog ) 6 times (18sc)
Round 9: (sc, sc2tog) 6 times (12sc)
Stuff firmly
Round 10: sc2tog 6 times (6sc)
Fasten off

For the oxygen (make 2):
With red make a magic loop with 6sc
Round 1: make 2sc in each st (12sc)
Round 2: (sc in the first st, make 2sc in the next st) 6 times to end (18sc)
Round 3: (sc in the first 5 sts, make 2sc in the next st) 3 times (21sc)
Round 4: sc3, make 2sc in the next st, (sc6, make 2sc in the next st) twice, sc3 (24sc)
Rounds 5 - 8: (4 rounds) sc in each st
Round 9: sc3, sc2tog, (sc6, sc2tog) twice, sc3 (21sc)
Round 10: (sc5, sc2tog) 3 times (18sc)
Round 11: (sc, sc2tog) 6 times (12sc)
Stuff firmly
Round 12: sc2tog 6 times (6sc)
Fasten off

Fun fact 1:
Whilst there are 20 different amino acids present in our bodies, only 9 of these need to be acquired through our food, as our bodies are able to create the other 11.


For the single bonds (make 8):
With white ch6
Round 1: sc in the first cahin st you made, then sc in the following 5 chain sts to make a loop (6sc)
Fasten off

For the double bonds (make 2):
With white ch4
Round 1: sc in the first cahin st you made, then sc in the following 3 chain sts to make a loop (4sc)
Fasten off

For the R group:
With brown make a magic loop with 8sc
Round 1: (sc, make 3sc inthe next st) 4 times (16sc)
Round 2: sc2, make 3sc in the next st, (sc3, make 3sc in the next st) 3 times, sc (24sc)
Rounds 3 - 8: (6 rounds) sc in each st
Round 9: (sc3, sc3tog) 4 times
Round 10: sc2, sc3tog, (sc, sc3tog) 3 times
Stuff firmly
Round 11: sc2tog, sc, sc2tog twice
Fasten off

To make up:
I have included a photo tutorial to guide you through the assembling of this molecule.

Firstly sew one of the single bonds to two of your hydrogen atoms, as shown below.

These other end of these bonds then needs to be sewn to the nitrogen atom. They should be sewn so that they are approximately 1/3 of the circumference apart.

You then need to sew third single bond to the Nitrogen atom, so that it is equidistant from each of the hydrogen atoms.

The other end of this bond should then be sewn to one of the carbon atoms.


After this you need to sew another of the hydrogen atoms to the carbon atom (connected via a bond). The bonds around this carbon atom are the most difficult to position correctly. They should be less than 1/3 of the circumference apart, but more than 1/4 (the actual bond angle is 109.5°, but you don't need to be this specific (unless you want to be of course!)


After this the next bond will need to be sewn, onto which the 2nd carbon atom is attached. This should be positioned so that the bond angle between each of the bonds is equal. Keep in mind that you will later be sewing a 4th atom to this central carbon, which will also need to be equidistant from each of the atoms already surrounding the carbon. The positioning of the atoms should start to be farming a sort of tetrahedral shape, as shown below.


After this you need to sew a single bond to the second carbon atom you attached, so that it is a distance of 1/3 of the circumference of the molecule away from the existing bond ). You will then need to sew one of the oxygen atoms to this.
Next you should sew a single bond to the remaining hydrogen atom. This should then be sewn to the oxygen atom at a distance grater than 1/4 of the circumference away from the existing bond, but less than the distance (proportional to the circumference) between the bonds around the first carbon atom (the exact angle between them is 104.5° if you're interested)



You then need to sew the two double bonds next to each other on the remaining oxygen atom, as shown below.


This atom should then be sewn to the second carbon atom (the one the other oxygen is attached to) so that it is a distance of 1/3 of the circumference away from each of the existing bonds.


Finally you should sew the last bond onto the R group, and should then sew this to the first carbon atom so that it is equidistant from each of the other bonds.



Fun fact 2:
In reality, this shape is not the only one that the amino acid can take. Theoretically each amino acids has 2 so-called 'stereoisomers' (known as the L and the D isomer) which differ in the positioning of the 4 groups around the central carbon atom (see this video on stereoisomerism for more detail). However, in reality the D configuration is very rarely found in living organisms, hence why in this pattern we have created the L isomer.


For the eyes (make 2):
With black dk yarn make a magic loop with 6sc
Fasten off

Add highlights using white yarn, then sew the eyes to the nitrogen atom. Embroider the mouth underneath using black embroidery thread. 






That's all from this pattern - I hope you've found it interesting and informative. If you have any questions please feel free to contact me, either by leaving a comment below, or via my Ravelry page. However, if you're hoping for a speedy reply its best to contact me via my Instagram. You can also follow me on there to find out more about the patterns I'm currently working on, and be alerted when I publish anything new, As always you are very welcome to sell finished products but I do ask that you don't re-post this pattern, or claim it or any of its images as your own. Thank you!


References:

Bladder

This pattern is part of a series of life-sized organs I'm making. The plan is that these will all fit together to create an anatomically correct human model. So far I have published the pattern for a stomach, but I have many more patterns coming soon. You can find out about all the other patterns I've been working on and be updated when new patterns are released by following my Instagram page.
This pattern contains instructions on how to make the bladder, uretas, and urethra. The urethra is approximately the length it would be in a female (if you wish to create a male urinary system the urethra should be continued until it is around 19cm long) 


Difficulty:
Easy


You will need:

  • A 2mm crochet hook
  • A 2.5mm crochet hook
  • anchor creativa fino 4ply cotton in lemon
  • Black 4ply yarn
  • White sewing cotton
  • A regular sewing needle
  • A darning needle
  • Polyester toy stuffing
  • A pair of scissors
If you're interested in learning more about the bladder and how it works, I recommend watching this Crash Course video.

For the bladder and urethra:
With a 2.5mm hook and lemon yarn make a magic loop with 6sc
Round 1: make 2sc in each st (12sc)
Round 2: (sc, make 2sc in the next st) 6 times (18sc)
Round 3: (sc2, make 2sc in the next st) 6 times (24sc)
Round 4: Sc2, (make 2sc in the next st, sc4) 5 times, make 2sc in the following st, sc2 (30sc)
Round 5: Sc2, ch1, slip1, sc2, make 2sc in the next st, (sc5, make 2sc in the following st) twice, sc2, ch1, skip1, sc2, make 2sc in the next st, (sc5, make 2sc in the following st) twice (36sc)
Round 6: Sc2, sc in the hole underneath the chain st, sc, make 2sc in the next st, sc2, (make 2sc in the following st, sc6) twice, sc4, sc in the hole underneath the chain st, sc, (make 2sc in the next st, sc6) twice, make 2sc in the following st, sc2 (42sc)
Rounds 8 - 11: (4 rounds) Sc in each st
Round 12: Sc2, sc2tog, (sc5, sc2tog) 5 times, sc3 (36sc)
Round 13: (sc4, sc2tog) 3 times (30sc)
Round 14: Sc, sc2tog, (sc3, sc2tog) 5 times, sc2 (24sc)
Round 15: (sc2, sc2tog) 6 times  (18sc)
Round 16: (Sc2tog, sc) 6 times (12sc)
Stuff lightly
Round 17: Sc2tog 6 times
Round 18: Sc, sc2tog, sc, sc2tog
Rounds 19 - 26: (8 rounds) Sc in each st
Fasten off

Fun fact 1:
In the middle ages, Alchemists tried to extract a number of different elements from urine, including gold. Whilst there isn't any gold in urine, this did lead to a number of other important discoveries, including the existence of white phosphor, which used to be used in explosives.


For the ureters (make 2):
With a 2mm hook and lemon yarn make a 25cm i-cord
Fasten off

Sew the ends of these to the holes you made by skipping the stitch on round 5.


Fun fact 2:
Urine can be an effective antiseptic due to its acidity. In times of war it has been used to sterilize open wounds when no other option was available. Very dark urine was preferred as this worked best at clearing out the harmful bacteria living in the most gruesome wounds.


For the eyes:
With black yarn make a magic loop with 6sc
Fasten off

Add highlights to the eyes using white thread, then sew them to the face. Add eyebrows and a mouth using black yarn.



That's all from this pattern - I hope you have enjoyed it! If you have any questions please feel free to contact me, either by leaving a comment below or via my Instagram or Ravelry page. My Instagram is the best place to contact me if you're hoping for a speedy reply, and you can also follow me on there to keep up to date with what I'm currently working on, and to be informed when I post future patterns. 


References:

Sunday, June 6, 2021

Stomach

This pattern is part of a series of internal organs I'm making. It is life-sized and the plan is that it will fit together nicely with all of the other organs of the human digestive system. You can find out about all the other patterns I've been working on and be updated when new patterns are released by following my Instagram page. The facial features and glasses are entirely optional, but they give it a fun touch.



Difficulty:
Easy - medium

Tension:
The tension for this project isn't particularly important, as human organs are highly variable, but the tension I used was approx. 13sts and 14 rows per 5x5cm square (working in the round)

You will need:
A 2mm crochet hook
1 ball of Anchor creative fino 4ply yarn in light orange
Black 4ply yarn
White sewing cotton
0.5mm craft wire (optional)
A regaulr sewing needle
A darning needle
Polyester toy stuffing
A pair of scissors


Note:
  • This pattern includes the back-to-front single crochet stitch (bfsc). A video to show you how to do this can be found here. It's pretty simple but if you can't work it out you can just use a regular single crochet stitch, however this will give it a slightly different look.
  • This pattern also includes the foundation single crochet stitch. A handy website for learning to do this stitch can be found hereor alternatively a video tutorial can be found here.

If you'd like to find out more about how the stomach works, I recommend watching this Crash Course video, which is very entertaining and informative.
 

For the body of the stomach:
This starts from the top and works downwards (towards where the small intestine attaches)

Using 4ply yarn make a magic loop with 6sc
Round 1: make 2sc in each st (12sc)
Round 2: (sc, make 2sc in the next st) 6 times (18sc)
Round 3: (sc2, make 2sc in the next st) 6 times (24sc)
Round 4: (sc3, make 2sc in the next st) 6 times (30sc)
Round 5: Sc2, (make 2sc in the next st, sc4) 5 times, make 2sc in the following st, sc2 (36sc)
Round 6: (sc5, make 2sc in the next st) 6 times (42sc)
Round 7: Sc3, (make 2sc in the next st, sc5) 5 times, make 2sc in the following st, sc2 (48sc)
Round 8: (sc15, make 2sc in the next st) (51sc)
Rounds 9 - 10: (2 rounds) Sc in each st
Row 11: Sc48, sc3tog. Ch1, turn (49sc)
Row 12: Bfsc2tog, bfsc44, bfsc3tog. Ch1, turn (46sc)
Row 13: Sc2tog, sc44. Ch1, turn (45sc)
Row 14: Bfsc45. Ch1, turn
Row 15: make 2sc in the first st, sc43, make 2sc in the last st. Ch1, turn (47sc)
Row 16: make 3bfsc in the first st, bfsc45, make 3bfsc in the last st. Ch1, turn (51sc)
Row 17: Sc51, fsc1
Round 18: Sc in the first st you made of the last round, then sc in the next 51sts (so that you close up the hole in the side to the stomach, as shown below) (52sts)

Round 19: Slip7, sc12, hdc13, sc12, slip7
Round 20: Sc13, sc2tog, sc22, sc2tog, sc12 (50sts)
Round 21: Slip8, sc11, hdc13, sc11, slip6
Round 22: Sc13, sc2tog, sc22, sc2tog, sc10 (48sts)
Round 23: Slip9, sc11, hdc11, sc11, slip5
Round 24: Sc14, sc2tog, sc21, sc2tog, sc8 (46sts)
Round 25: Slip9, sc10, hdc11, sc10, slip5
Round 26: Sc14, sc2tog, sc20, sc2tog, sc7 (44sts)
Round 27: Slip9, sc9, hdc11, sc10, slip
Round 28: Sc in each st
Round 29: Slip10, sc9, hdc11, sc9, slip4
Round 30: Sc16, sc2tog, sc18, sc2tog, sc6 (42sts)
Round 31: Slip10, sc8, hdc5, hdc2tog, hdc4, sc8, slip4 (41sts)
Round 32: Sc in each st
Round 33: Slip11, sc7, hdc13, sc8, slip2
Round 34: Slip10, sc3, sc2tog, sc3, hdc13, sc3, sc2tog, sc5 (39sts)
round 35: Slip11, sc3, sc2tog, sc3, hdc11, sc3, sc2tog, sc4 (37sts)
Round 36: Sc, slip10, sc4, sc2tog, sc3, hdc9, sc3, sc2tog, sc3 (35sts)
round 37: Sc, slip10, sc3, sc2tog, sc3, hdc9, sc3, sc2tog, sc2 (33sts)
Round 38: Sc2, slip9, sc3, sc2tog, sc3, hdc10, sc2, sc2tog (31sts)
Round 39: (Over 1 round) Sc3, slip8, sc3, sc2tog, sc2, hdc10, sc2, sc2tog (29sts)
Round 40: Sc3, slip8, sc2, sc2tog, sc2, hdc8, sc2, sc2tog (27sts)
Round 41: Sc2, slip10, sc2, sc2tog, sc2, hdc8, sc2 (26sts)
Round 42: (over 1 round) sc2tog, sc2, slip8, sc2, sc2tog, sc, hdc7, sc, sc2tog (23sts)
Round 43: Sc2, slip8, sc2, sc2tog, sc, hdc7, sc (22sts)
round 44: Sc2tog, sc, slip8, sc, sc2tog, sc2, hdc6, sc (20sts)
Round 45: Sc2tog, sc, slip7, sc, sc2tog, sc, hdc6 (18sts)
Round 46: Sc2tog, sc, slip6, sc, sc2tog, hdc6 (16sts)
Round 47: Sc2tog, sc14 (15sc)
Round 48: Sc2, hdc5, sc3, slip5
Round 49: Sc2, hdc5, sc3, slip5
Round 50: Sc3, hdc5, sc3, slip4
Round 51: Slip1, sc3, hdc4, sc3, slip4
Round 52: Slip1, sc3, hdc5, sc3, slip3
Fasten off

Fun fact 1:
The acid released into the stomach (Hydrochlorid acid, HCl) used to help digest food is so strong that it can break down bones and some metals. Luckily the stomach is also able to release a fluid consisting of a combination of mucus and bicarbonate ions that are able to neutralise this acid and protect the stomach cells from being digested.

For the cardia (found at the base of the esophagus):
Rejoin yarn to the top of the  hole you made in the side of the stomach, as shown in the images below

Round 1: Sc16 around the edge of this hole

Round 2: Sc in each st
Rounds 3 - 5: (3 rounds)  Slip3, sc4, hdc4, sc4, slip1
Rounds 6 - 7: (2 rounds)  Slip4, sc4, hdc4, sc4
Rounds 8 - 9: (2 rounds) Sc, slip4, sc4, hdc4, sc3
Fasten off neatly
Stuff  firmly


Fun fact 2:
When we blush, so do our stomachs! The part of our body that controls blushing is the sympathetic nervous system, and when you feel embarrassed this activates your 'fight or flight' response and releases adrenaline. This results in dilated blood vessels, causing your face to go red, and also allows for more blood flow to your stomach, making it appear redder too.


For the eyes:
With black 4ply yarn and a 2mm hook make a magic loop with 6sc
Fasten off

Use white sewing cotton to add highlights to the eyes, then sew them into place. Use black yarn to add the mouth. The glasses are created by bending the craft wire into shape (as shown below), and then inserting the 'arms' of the glasses into the stomach either sides of the eyes. 






That's all from this pattern! You are very welcome to sell finished products but I do ask that you don't re-post this pattern, or claim it or any of the images as your own. If you have any questions about this or any of my other patterns, please don't hesitate to contact me. You can leave a comment below, or message me on my Ravelry page, through the best way to contact me is through my Instagram page, where you can keep updated with all the projects I'm currently working on.